Ορισμός της Χαλκηδόνας
ο Ορισμός της Χαλκηδόνας (ονομάζεται επίσης Χαλκηδονική πίστη ή η Definition of Chalcedon) is a declaration of Christ's nature, adopted at the Συμβούλιο της Χαλκηδόνας το 451 μ.Χ. Χαλκηδόνας ήταν ένα early centre of Christianity located in Μικρά Ασία (μοντέρνο Τουρκία). The council was the fourth of the Οικουμενικά Συμβούλια that are accepted by Χαλκηδόνος churches which include the Ανατολική Ορθόδοξη, Ρωμαιοκαθολικός, και τα περισσότερα Προτεστάντης churches. It was the first council not to be recognised by any Ανατολικοί Ορθόδοξοι church; for this reason these churches may be classified as Μη Χαλκηδόνη.
The Council of Chalcedon was summoned to consider the Christological question in light of the "one-nature" view of Christ proposed by Eutyches, archimandrite at Constantinople, which prevailed at the Δεύτερο Συμβούλιο της Εφέσου in 449, sometimes referred to as the "Robber Synod".
The Council first solemnly ratified the Κρήτης της Νίκαιας adopted in 325 and that creed as amended by the Πρώτο Συμβούλιο της Κωνσταντινούπολης in 381. It also confirmed the authority of two synodical letters of Κύριλλος της Αλεξάνδρειας και το letter of Pope Leo I to Flavian of Constantinople.Πρότυπο: Sfn
The full text of the definition reaffirms the decisions of the Συμβούλιο της Εφέσου, the pre-eminence of the Θρησκεία της Νίκαιας (325) and the further definitions of the Συμβούλιο της Κωνσταντινούπολης (381).Πρότυπο: Sfn
In one of the translations into English, the key section, emphasizing the double nature of Christ (human and divine), runs: Πρότυπο: Quote
The Definition implicitly addressed a number of popular heretical beliefs. The reference to "co-essential with the Father" was directed at Αρειανισμός; "co-essential with us" is directed at Απόλλινισμός; "Two Natures unconfusedly, unchangeably" refutes Ευτυχή; and "indivisibly, inseparably" is against Νεστοριανισμός.
Oriental Orthodox dissent
The Chalcedonian Definition was written amid controversy between the Δυτικός και Ανατολικές εκκλησίες over the meaning of the Ενσάρκωση (Βλ. Χριστολογία). The Western church readily accepted the creed, but some Eastern churches did not. Political disturbances prevented the Armenian bishops from attending. Even though Chalcedon reaffirmed the Third Council's condemnation of Τον Νεστόριο, the Non-Chalcedonians always suspected that the Chalcedonian Definition tended towards Nestorianism. This was in part because of the restoration of a number of bishops deposed at the Second Council of Ephesus, bishops who had previously indicated what appeared to be support of Nestorian positions.
ο Coptic Church of Alexandria dissented, holding to Κύριλλος της Αλεξάνδρειας's preferred formula for the oneness of Christ's nature in the incarnation of God the Word as "out of two natures".Πρότυπο: Sfn Cyril's language is not consistent and he may have countenanced the view that it is possible to contemplate in theory two natures after the incarnation,Πρότυπο: Sfn but the Church of Alexandria felt that the Definition should have stated that Christ be acknowledged "out of two natures" rather than "in two natures".
The definition defines that Christ is "acknowledged in two natures", which "come together into one person and one υπόσταση". The formal definition of "two natures" in Christ was understood by the critics of the council at the time, and is understood by many historians and theologians today, to side with western and Antiochene Χριστολογία and to diverge from the teaching of Κύριλλος της Αλεξάνδρειας, who always stressed that Christ is "one". However, a modern analysis of the sources of the creed (by A. de Halleux, in Revue Theologique de Louvain 7, 1976) and a reading of the acts, or proceedings, of the council show that the bishops considered Cyril the great authority and that even the language of "two natures" derives from him.
Αυτό miaphysite position, historically characterised by Chalcedonian followers as "μονοφυσιτισμό" though this is denied by the dissenters, formed the basis for the distinction from other churches of the Coptic Church of Egypt and Αιθιοπία και το "Ιακωβίτης" churches of Συρία, και το Αρμενική Αποστολική Εκκλησία (Βλ. Ανατολική Ορθοδοξία).
- The Chalcedonian Creed in Greek at www.earlychurchtexts.com. (with dictionary lookup links)
- Definition of Chalcedon
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